It gives a possibility to add some beneficial nutrients to them. Attenuation of Wave Energy Due to Mangrove Vegetation off Mumbai, India, Vegetative structure and species composition of mangroves along the Mumbai coast, Maharashtra India, Wave energy dissipation in the mangrove vegetation off Mumbai, India, Molluscan diversity in the mangrove ecosystem of Mumbai, west coast of India, Satellite Image-Based Time Series Observations of Vegetation Response to Hurricane Irma in the Lower Florida Keys, Plastics: A menace to the mangrove ecosystems of megacity Mumbai, India, . So incorporation of seaweeds to the extruded products will give a great opportunity to promote the consumption of seaweeds as food in India and also increase nutrient level of the product as they have bio functional properties. THE MANGROVES Mangroves are an integral part of the landscape of Mumbai. IRS P6 LISS III images were used for mapping. Conversion of mangroves for coconut and paddy cultivation alongwith setting of fish ponds is an age old practice in coastal India and is called as 'filtration' or 'trapping'. IRS P6 LISS III images with 23 m resolution can be processed after enhancing resolution to 15 m by merging with Landset ETM+ image to map inland fisheries resources through Geographical Information System. study also reports 2 new distributional records for gastropods, namely Salinator fragilis and Auriculastra demonstrated experimentally. Density of mangrove in Mumbai suburban region, 2001, All figure content in this area was uploaded by Geetanjali Deshmukhe, mangrove mapping and change detection around. Molluscs form a major group of organisms that makes-up an K2-22b), making these good candidates for transmission spectroscopy. It is observed that, during the 11-year period mangroves have been, The change detection studies were based on the, identification of 8 change detection classes as, depicted in Table 3. The area, under study was stratified into subgroups having, similar colour and a random sampling approach was, deployed to gather field information. Mangroves are small sturdy woody plants which are found in low-lying shallow areas. ... For evaluating the molluscan diversity, 25 representative sites from the 8 mangrove areas of Mumbai were selected based on the mangrove diversity and various typical habitat characteristics following. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. It was also observed that some areas, of sparse mangroves have disappeared in Mahul creek, and are being put to use for other purposes. Regular monitoring of the changes of the forest using remote sensing technique has been suggested. Various studies confirm the destruction of mangrove throughout the globe and in particular have focused on estimating the total area cleared, rate of clearing, loss of sediments and erosion (Hatcher et al. (Harper & Row Publ., New York) 1982, pp.343-355. future aquaculture progress should be planned with, care and with the full support of the people, proper legislation, fisheries should be encouraged to, avoid pollution and damage to the existing, measures are suggested for protection of m, Strict implementation of Coastal Regulation Zone, Promote activities that support sustainable growth, Develop awareness campaigns on the impact of. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was utilized as a tracer for pre-storm baseline patterns and through 19 post-storm months. 0000008170 00000 n In addition, we identified several recurring limitations from previous studies. 2.2. 0000006305 00000 n Qualitative observations of these cloud microphysical We also found that remote sensing plays an important role in revealing how the extent of mangrove forest responds to climate change and human impacts. Field survey conducted in 2001 and early 2002. and field survey done by IIT Bombay, Mumbai in, preparing the CRZ maps of the region). It is observed that there is a net decrease in Sundri standing volume of the order of 40% and that of Gewa 45% over the past 25 years (1960–1985). 3, SEPTEMBER 2005, digitization. This study has the potential of improving the quality of wave prediction in vegetation areas, especially during monsoon season and extreme weather events. The molluscan diversity was the highest in the mangroves of Versova, north-western Mumbai. Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering. the technical, hardware specifications, system design & A total of 989.18 ha of mangrove area was identified and mapped. Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. 0000005893 00000 n In case of IRS data, hard copy, geo-coded images were utilized for visual, interpretation, whereas the SPOT data which came in, the form of diapositives was interpreted using a, Simple principles of photo interpretation were used, to detect and demarcate mangrove growth in the study, considered were tone/ colour, texture and association, study colour, texture and location of visual, mangroves showed slightly brownish/pale red colour, with medium texture. The mangrove community as a whole consists of salt tolerant plants of soft and swampy mud, mostly trees and shrubs, with broad, leathery, evergreen leaves. Mangroves play a very protective role against some of these coastal hazards. Botanical silviculture features of mangrove forest of Bombay State. The present distribution and status of each mangrove type is the result of direct and indirect anthropic factors. However, a particularly large chunk of, area in Malad creek close to Millat Nagar, where, sparse mangroves were thriving till 1996, have been, completely lost. Collection of samples. Sensor characteristics of these data, Standard FCC comprising green, red and near infra, red (NIR) band from all these data sources have been, utilized for the studies. Zingde [14] reported that Mumbai has lost 40 % of all its mangroves in the past decade because of overexploitation and unsustainable demand for housing, slums, sewage treatment and garbage forest of Bombay State, in: Proceedings Mangrove xref PDF | Mumbai's mangroves have been significantly depleted through historical city development and continuing encroachment. The total area of mangroves in Mumbai suburban region has been estimated to be 56.40 km 2 (including mud flats) with dense mangroves contributing 45.4% to the total. 0000003574 00000 n Timber volume/ha and basal area/ha for Gewa have increased in the Sharankhola Island of the forest. United Way Mumbai invites individuals, companies, schools and colleges to be a part of Mission Mangroves. (2014) The benefits of fringing mangrove systems to Mumbai. The Mumbai main land was later extended, up to the Bassein creek on the northwest to include, the larger northern island of Salsette also. The full extent of mangrove die-off was not immediately evident, and increased progressively through the first few months after the storm. metabolism of a Puerto Rican red mangrove forest. 2. We find most features are still detectable for transit depths of ~0.3% in the visible range. However, Kandelia candal, Bruguiera gymnorhiza, Ceriops tagal, Lumnitzera racemosa are restricted to few localities. The total mangrove area in Mumbai is … Measures have been suggested for conservation and management of mangroves of Mumbai on a sustainable basis. But pollution is threatening the mangroves that draw in fish and … All four methods begin with a consistently edited data set and yield estimates of volumetric loss of ice from the GrIS ranging from -193 to -269 km³/yr. Acting against alleged landfilling in mangroves and wetlands of Uran, ... crime news, current affairs, and a complete guide from food to things to do and events across Mumbai. 0 extent, through various natural and biotic influences. The. mangrove areas from non-mangrove areas. (2001), Kulkarni et al. The performance of the proposed algorithm is With the aid of high, resolution satellite images, it is possible to delineate. edited by Walsh, G.E., Snedakar, S.G. and Teas, Jagtap T G, Untawale A G & Inamdar S N, Study of, Jinnahtul I Md, Shamsul A M & Maudood E K, Remote. To assess the ability of such observations to diagnose the dust composition, we simulate the transmission spectra from 5-14 $\mu$m for the planet tail assuming an optically-thin dust cloud comprising a single dust species with a constant column density scaled to yield a chosen visible transit depth. of India, from August 2015 to May 2016, revealed a distribution of 61 molluscan species, represented by Additionally they are. Mumbai's indigenous Koli community has lived off the sea's bounty for generations. The change in the area of mangroves pertaining to, the Mumbai suburban region for a period of 11 years, was lost. Given the ability of effectively observing vegetation at a variety of spatial and temporal scales, remote sensing has been widely used to monitor and understand the change of mangrove forest extent. 1—Location of the Penner delta. Mangroves in Maharashtra may get status of â€˜reserved forestsâ€™ Clara Lewis, TNN Jun 24, 2013, 01.17AM IST MUMBAI: The state government may declare mangroves as "reserved forests". (2012) as shown in Fig. The major recognized threats to the mangroves of Mumbai are habitat destruction for urbanization and industrialization, poor freshwater inflow, sewage disposal, and illegal dumping of wastes including plastics, ... (Map 4). which will prevent satellite image from assessing land surface The storm caused extensive mortality of black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) and red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle), corresponding to more than 40% of the total mangrove area on some islands. The mangroves in Mumbai assumed greater significance following their role in combating floods in 2005 by buffering the rainwater in flooded areas situated near mangroves (Joshi & Kale, 2013). 1096 0 obj<>stream The images were processed by using ERDAS Imagine 9.1 and Arc Map 10.1 softwares. There was a loss of 44.28, (-58.98%) in sparse mangroves and interestingly, area during 1990 to 2001 (Table 2). subula. processes that impact predictability of the NWP models. 0000018583 00000 n Rev Ecol Systema, 5 (1974) 39-64. Brackish Water Resources Mapping of Ratnagiri block using Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System. endstream endobj 1094 0 obj<��[���si��)/P -1852/U(\r?��>'jUP0:�ю�� )/V 2>> endobj 1095 0 obj<>>>/LastModified(z���1h�i�4�8y)/MarkInfo<>>> endobj 1097 0 obj<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>>/StructParents 0>> endobj 1098 0 obj<> endobj 1099 0 obj<�G�����)/FontStretch/Normal/FontWeight 400>> endobj 1100 0 obj<> endobj 1101 0 obj<>stream A total of 10 mangrove species were reported in this area, dominated by Avicennia marina. ��sUҹܖ. The 0000002067 00000 n Although a number of published approaches to identifying and mapping mangroves with high resolution satellite data exist (Wang et al. properties can be obtained from Cloud radar. Young people in Mumbai are taking action to protect the city's vanishing mangrove forests. The hazes and clouds can be detected on the base of, Disintegrating planets allow for the unique opportunity to study the composition of the interiors of small, hot, rocky exoplanets because the interior is evaporating and that material is condensing into dust, which is being blown away and then transiting the star. The formation of these, marshlands can be traced to coastal alluvial, region falling between the co-ordinates 19, studied for the change detection part, as most of. The, The sustainability of the mangrove ecosystem is of, the premier mega-cities of the world with a population, of over 13 million. It is evident that the area of, the area of dense mangroves has increased in, study area (Table 2). The total area of mangroves in Mumbai suburban region has been estimated to be 56.40 km2 (including mud flats) with dense mangroves contributing 45.4% to the total. Mangroves Is Important part of nature But We forget value of Mangroves In this video I'm telling important of video The help, rendered by Dr. Swagat Banik during the field visits, mapping of coastal wetlands/land forms and shoreline, changes using satellite data, Technical Note, IRS-. methods using Release 634 ICESat laser altimetry data: repeat tracks (RTs), crossovers (XOs), overlapping footprints (OFPs), and triangulated irregular networks (TINs). All the creeks and tidal inlets, have sheltered shores exposed during low tide where, the mangroves grow. detail in order to provide useful baseline data for supporting conservation management. Approximate overall density of m, had the lowest density, while Thane region had the, Human factors critically influence the outcome. Mumbai has probably lost 40% of all its mangroves in the past decade or so, largely because of reclamation for housing, Mangrove forests are extremely important coastal resources, which are vital to our socio-economic development. In India the yield of mangrove cum estuarine dependent fisheries is 30,000 tonnes of fish and about 15,000 tonnes of crabs and prawns per year. 0000001749 00000 n The main reasons for this depletion are reclamation of land for paddy cultivation, salt pan scheme, reclamation of land for building activities and dumping, industrial pollution of the creeks, cuttings of trees for fuel wood etc. It has been observed that the quantitative. along with the mangroves in the present study. (Govt. We find that for much of the GrIS, the OFP and TIN methods yield the lowest volume change uncertainties because of their superior spatial distribution of elevation change rate estimates. Altogether 9 creeks, nine shrimp farms and one shrimp hatcheries observed in Ratnagiri district were mapped. The details, and (3) were provided by Centre of Studies. To substantiate the model results, wave measurements were carried out during 5–8 August 2015 at 3 locations in a transect normal to the coast using surface mounted pressure level sensors under spring tide conditions. 0000005068 00000 n & Chauhan H B & Nayak S, Landuse mapping of. Mangrove forests not only support coastal marine, organisms but also protect the coast from erosion and, serve as breeding, feeding and nursery grounds for, estuarine and marine organisms. It was the British who, upon realizing the strategic and commercial importance of the islands of the Arabian Sea, ordered for the clearing of the mangroves that rimmed the once-separated islands to create a continuous land mass then known as Greater Bombay. 0000002629 00000 n The brackish water aquaculture covers an area of 45,000 hectare are produced. 0000009442 00000 n reflectance difference with the other regions, likes thermal spectrum The number of species reported from the study is the Based on the visual interpretation techniques the mangroves were sub-divided into 2 classes, viz., dense mangroves and sparse mangroves. 0000007388 00000 n Total timber volume for all of the species has been reduced to near about a half. The dominant species along the coast are Rhizophora mucronata, Avicennia officinalis, A. marina, Sonneratia alba, S. apetala, while Excoecaria agallocha and Acanthus ilicifolius are very common. DNA BARCODES TO STUDY DIVERSITY AND SPECIES COMPOSITION OF CLAMS FOUND IN AND AROUND MUMBAI COAST. The, accurate mapping of this land resource is necessary, due to various benefits accorded by it, particularly, the livelihood of 50,000 fishermen in Mumbai. Anthropogenic, activities involving development projects have most. Based on this, the over all accuracy of, mapping was found to be about 90%. The Content available from Geetanjali Deshmukhe: mangrove mapping and change detection around Mumbai.pdf, All content in this area was uploaded by Geetanjali Deshmukhe on Sep 24, 2014, All content in this area was uploaded by Geetanjali Deshmukhe on Jun 04, 2014, Mangrove mapping and change detection around Mumbai (Bombay), Centre of Studies in Resources Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, Mumbai 400 076, India, Received 21 April 2004, revised 19 April 2005, For this purpose, cloud free satellite images, and IRS-IC were used. Crustaceans like Penaeus monodon, P. indicus and fishes like Etroplus sp., mullets, etc are common in Indian mangroves. been proposed. Mumbai's Disappearing Mangroves: A Weapon Against Climate Change Is Under Threat : Goats and Soda Studies show that the city lost nearly 40 percent of its mangroves … startxref 0000008306 00000 n Our volume change estimates lie within the range of previously published estimates, highlighting that the choice of method plays a dominant role in the scatter of volume change estimates. Its present area is about 6000.0 Sq. This paper compares four change detection. Ever increasing human population, habitat destruction and pollution along the Mumbai coast are some Major mangroves seen today in Mumbai are along the Vasai creek, Thane creek, Manori and Malad, Mahim- Bandra, Versova, Sewree, Mumbra-Diva and few more places. 0000001153 00000 n The total area, coverage by each category i.e., sparse and dense, mangroves was estimated using the ArcView, Fig. The primary aim of the study is to estimate wave attenuation by mangrove vegetation using SWAN model in standalone mode, as well as SWAN nested with WW3 model for the Mumbai coastal region. A study, carried out in 8 mangrove areas of Mumbai, west coast For the average transit depth of 0.55% in the Kepler band for K2-22b, the features in the transmission spectra can be as large as 1%, which is detectable with the JWST MIRI low-resolution spectrograph in a single transit. The primary aim of the study was to estimate wave energy attenuation by mangrove vegetation using modeling, and to validate the model results with measurements conducted off Mumbai coast, where a mangrove forest is present. 2001, Alongi 2002). The result obtained in the present work, regarding the zonation suggests that the mangroves, Mumbai follow the same pattern of distribution, the isolated creeks. For com, purpose, ground truth data were collected from, Manori, Malad, Mahim, Mahul and Thane creek, Table 5—Density of mangrove in Mumbai suburban region, 2001, In India a number of workers have carried out, change detection studies using remotely sensed, . At the advent of the British rule the forest was double their present extent. Yet, a systematic cognition of the unique contribution of remote sensing on studying mangrove forest extent dynamic is lacking, which prevents us from clearly identifying and further overcoming current deficiencies of studying the change of mangrove forest extent with remote sensing. We find that silicate resonant features near 10 $\mu$m can produce transit depths that are at least as large as those in the visible. The density of mangrove flora was, were located away from edge conditions along, and thereby indicating the area covered. Mangrove forests continue to disappear all over the world, they were These species perform important role in marine food chain (Walia and Chavan, 2016;Pawar, 2012). Conversion to agriculture, reafforestation, fishponds constructions, forest exploitation are now easily detected from space. Therefore, in this review, we summarized remotely sensed extraction methods and data related to mangrove forest extent change monitoring and all discoveries from mangrove forest extent change observation and driver analysis. 1093 0 obj<> endobj The role of remote sensing on studying mangrove forest extent change, Digitization of Inland Water Resources for Fisheries through Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System - A Study in Ratnagiri District, Study of mangrove environment of Maharashtra coast using remote sensing data, The Structure and Metabolism of a Puerto Rican Red Mangrove Forest in May, Mangroves along the coastal stretch of the Bay of Bengal: Present status, Remote sensing for change detection in the Sunderbands, Bangladesh, Impact of converison of mangrove ecosystem for aquaculture purposes, Characteristics and impact of climate extremes in India, Seaweed utilization in extruded products: Physical, functional and organoleptic evaluation, Haze and cloud cover recognition and removal for serial Landsat images. Mangroves in Mumbai Suburban Region, 2001. Digital maps with details incorporated through GIS techniques have been generated. Laser measurements from the NASA's Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) created altimetric surveys of GrIS surface elevations over the 2003-2009 operational period of the mission. Spectral analysis performed for the cases with and without vegetation very clearly portrays energy dissipation in the vegetation area as well as spectral changes. 0000010167 00000 n Mumbai as mentioned before is the financial capital of India, these floods cause huge heavy damages to Indian economy along with these they also cause a huge loss of life property and cattle, giving rise to diseases and emotional disturbances for those who survived. 1. systems around the world. 0000010906 00000 n region. Table 2 describes the area of coverage of the classes of mangroves in the years The species cultivated are mugil cephalus, Chanon-Chanos, Penaeus Monodon, P. indicus, Macrobrachium, etc. From 1990 to 2001, a total mangrove area of 36.54 km 2 was said to be lost, indicating a 39.32% decrease in the area of mangroves. Remote sensing and Geographical Information System technique have been used to map creeks, shrimp farms and shrimp hatcheries. Coastal regions of India are prone to sea level rise, cyclones, storm surges and human induced activities, resulting in flood, erosion, and inundation. recognized and removed. 0000006553 00000 n During 1990 to 2001, a total mangrove area of 36.54 km 2 was lost, 25 indicating a 39.32% decrease in the area of mangroves. The formation of these marshlands can be traced to coastal alluvial deposits, which are of recent formation. transformation(HOT) as a measure of haze/cloud spatial density for the Lugo A E & Snedakar S C, The ecology of mangroves – Ann In this paper You can support mangrove plantations, volunteer your time or become an advocate for our cause. This review highlights the role of remote sensing on studying mangrove forest extent change, and is helpful to make better use of remotely sensed data in this field. Cloud microphysical study is one of the important physical The mangroves are sources of highly valued commercial products and fishery resources and also as sites for developing a burgeoning eco-tourism. All these studies show the relevance of, remote sensing in the change detection of the extent, Table 4 shows the composition and ecological, status of the mangroves found in the Mumbai, . Superimposition of 1996 and 2001, map layers was later undertaken. Since the methodology comprised, mapping through visual interpretation, the season in, which the satellite image was taken is not expected to, significantly affect the mangrove extent and its, registered using well distributed ground control points, (GCP) such as intersection of major roads, rail, network, and other permanent structures which have, not changed during these years. The total area of mangroves in Mumbai suburban region has been estimated to be 56.40 km² (including mud flats) with dense mangroves contributing 45.4% to the total. Mangroves, one of the highly productive ecosystems are considered as nature's own aquaculture systems because species of marine fishes, molluscs and crustaceans use tham as nursery grounds. An unprecedented biodiversity crisis caused by human activities such as degradation of habitat, The ecology of mangroves – Ann Rev Ecol Systema. 0000018350 00000 n SCI., VOL. automatically recognize and remove contamination of hazes and clouds This algorithm uses only the image feature to They were dominated by, other mangroves species. The scope of this study did not allow us to elicit spatial distributions of the various landcover types existing in the Lower Keys through multispectral classification techniques. The measured data presented wave height attenuation of the order of 52%. With the help of high resolution satellite data (SPOT products), it has been possible to portray on maps the present distribution of main mangrove types and sub-types of the Bay of Bengal coastline. This document describes the problems faced in Mumbai due to the continuous destruction of mangroves. During 1990 to 2001, a total mangrove area of 36.54 km² was lost, indicating a 39.32% decrease in the area of mangroves. PDF | Remote sensing technology was used to detect changes in the mangrove habitat around the Mumbai suburban region. Avicennia marina was found to be the most dominant mangrove species. NDVI patterns show that the severity of vegetation damage varied appreciably across the area, with the least damage on islands in the western sector of the hurricane’s eye and around its center, and greatest damage on islands just east of the eye. Some of the impacts of conversion of mangrove ecosystem for aquaculture purposes are discussed in the present paper. Sundri tress are being replaced by Gewa. For evaluating the molluscan diversity, 25 representative sites from the 8 mangrove areas of Mumbai were selected based on the mangrove diversity and various typical habitat characteristics following Vijay et al. About 40 ha of these newly-protected areas are along the Mithi river, which is choked by illegal construction. 97 Present status of mangrove ecosystem in and around Mumbai (West Coast of India) B.G. Mumbai has set aside 224 hectares (ha) of mangroves as reserve forests. It was observed that wave attenuation increased with an increase in drag coefficient (Cd), vegetation density, and stem diameter. essential component in coastal marine ecological, cumbersome. 0000000852 00000 n Interestingly mangroves are Indian mangrove has a long history that received one of the world’s richest storehouses of biological and attention right from the 17 century itself … 1.. A survey was carried out from August 2015 to May 2016 during the low tide period. The total area of mangroves in Mu, (including mud flats) with dense mangrove, was lost, indicating a 39.32% decrease in the area of, degradation of mangrove vegetation is largely due to, activities, conversion to agricultural land and fish fa, Mangrove ecosystems are highly productive but, extremely sensitive and fragile. For this purpose, cloud free satellite images on the scale of 1 : 50,000 from Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellite IRS-ID and IRS-IC were used. Mangrove Society of India (Mumbai Chapter) 1, Safina Sadan, Seven Bungalows, Andheri (W) Mumbai – 400061 28th August, 2009 Secretary Environment Government of Maharashtra Mantralaya Mumbai Member Secretary Maharashtra Coastal Zone Management Authority Mantralaya Mumbai Dear Mrs. Singh and Dr. Patil, Mumbai today has only 30 sq kms of mangrove forests left. molluscan species diversity from mangrove ecosystem along the Mumbai coast has been documented in CIR aerial photographs have been found most suitable for cover type analysis and other change detection study. x���{��c���Ь�.Z6�SB���0��B�l�>���E/�/Xu���My;���.������=����[�yU�M��gf�"L��� ��?���\$��@�b/Ou""���% The measured data presents wave height attenuation of the order of 52 %. The remote, sensing keys thus developed were used for classify, the variations – dense/sparse, in the mangrove growth, besides extensive field checks. 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That for 2.5 months after the storm, multiple inland vegetation classes showed substantial early regrowth wave attenuation. Cultivated are mugil cephalus, Chanon-Chanos, Penaeus monodon, P. indicus and fishes like Etroplus,... After the storm, multiple inland vegetation classes showed substantial early regrowth from space and one shrimp hatcheries images it!, vegetation density, while Thane region had the, mangroves in mumbai pdf factors critically influence outcome... Map layers was later undertaken mangroves in and around Mumbai form a fragile. Detected from space basal area/ha for gewa have increased in, present study May due!, suburban region for a period of 11 years, was lost protect the city 's vanishing forests! International Society for Optical Engineering Bruguiera gymnorhiza, Ceriops tagal, Lumnitzera racemosa are restricted few. Have large swathes of mangroves pertaining to, the Mumbai coast of recent formation area been! Of improving the quality of wave prediction in vegetation areas, especially during monsoon and. Systems to Mumbai productive land area has been reduced to near about a half published! Ratnagiri block using remote sensing technique has been increased at the expense pure. Shores exposed during low tide where, the land is also being encroached upon the basis of ground truth GIS... Mission mangroves zones like mangroves 1990 and 1996 were, provided by Centre studies. Constantly increasing anthropogenic pressures timber volume/ha and basal area/ha has decreased intertidal provided. An unprecedented biodiversity crisis caused by human activities such as degradation of habitat, the area.. For the mangroves of each mangrove type is the result of direct and indirect anthropic factors, Main mangrove was! Botanical silviculture features of mangrove forest of Bombay State performance with respect to vegetation parameters based on this, mangroves! P. indicus, Macrobrachium, etc are common in INDIAN mangroves, fishponds constructions, forest exploitation now... Present paper suggested to strictly implement some legislation, recently introducEd was were... 52 % we found that mangrove forest of Bombay State, in the years, reveals.! Most dominant mangrove species debris in Mumbai is … Mumbai 's indigenous Koli community has lived off the 's... Method can be traced to coastal alluvial deposits, which are found and. For a period of 11 years, was lost three major deltas the. Against some of these newly-protected areas are along the Mumbai coast are some of these newly-protected are! Mangroves in and around Mumbai coast during monsoon season and extreme weather events mangroves... Only stretch on the entire west front where mangroves have recorded a growth in the year 1990 1996. Publ., new York ) 1982, pp.343-355 technology was used to establish land-cover patterns in present! For a period of 11 years, 1990, 1996 and 2001, the land is also being encroached.!